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The New English Curriculum requires that students have comprehensive reading ability, discourse comprehension, and language decoding ability. Students should cultivate discourse analysis and logical reasoning during reading, Reading is becoming more and more important for senior middle school students. With the developing of reform, the standard of reading for students is being higher and higher. Reading is becoming more and more important in the exam; the score of reading is increasing year by year. More and more students are not interested in English, falling behind others in English exams. In order to improve students reading score and help them pass the entrance exam, as an Englishteacher insenior middle school, by using education, psychology related theory. The author gives some instructions on English reading. Improving students’ ability of reading is currently one of the most important tasks for teachers.
The literature material method: Collect middle school English reading teaching theory and practice research achievements, especially low-level students in English learning. Update the education concept, with the aid of the theoretical experience, guiding the research.
    Action research: In low-level students classroom teaching, by using observation, discover, adjust, analysis of natural and true valuable research information and material, through evaluation to the effect of low-level students classroom teaching, continuously revised and perfected the research, finding out the most effective methods and strategies.
Survey analysis: Through the students’ interviews, questionnaire investigation, know the student main reading difficulties, reading interest, reading habits and reading strategies.
Experience law: The project evaluation and concluding stages, through one round practice,analyze existing problems and summarize the successful experience.
The traditional reading theory which is lack of the grasp of the whole passage is mainly talking about reading by using word to word, sentence translation and interpretation. In the English reading teaching low-level students of senior middle school, some teachers say English reading teaching should start from words, figure out every word meaning. To understand the whole text, the emphasis should be on vocabulary, grammar teaching, searching for and explaining the language points. Students feel dull about fragmented wordsand grammar. The efficiency of learning is low and the enthusiasm is decreasing gradually.
How to improve the learning interest of the students in the senior middle school English teaching, teachers not only teach them knowledge, but also teach them the methods of learning. We can apply the result of the western cognitive psychology of schema theory to senior middle school English reading teaching. The theory has certain enlightening and guiding significance in teaching and learning methods. In 1932, Bartlett first put forward the theory of schema reading; this theory plays a very important role in teaching of English reading. Through combination schema theory with English reading teaching practice to find effective reading mode, especially the English exam for low-level students, explore how to improve their English marks in a short time, the teacher and students can both benefit from the research.
1.4.1 Previous researches on schema reading theory
The schema theory was first introduced and translated into China since the 1980s. Many scholars have done researches based on schema theory. Some Chinese second language teachers even applied this theory in the teaching of English reading. They use this theory to make the reading process fluently. Zhang Weiyou talks about the influences of schema knowledge on comprehension of reading in Schematic Knowledge and Reading Comprehension. In the paper, he puts forward some helpful strategies in classroom teaching reading, such as prediction skills, the introduction of key words and interaction ways between readers and passages.[1] Lou Lijun (1993:41) makes a general survey of schema theory research concerning reading comprehension and points out that schema theory can give some instructions on the teaching of foreign language reading comprehension in China in her paper Schema Theory in Relation to the Teaching of FL Reading Comprehension published by Shantou University Journal.Lin Tingtalks about the effects of schema theory on reading comprehension too and puts forward some useful ways such as establishing images, comparison and paraphrasing to construct and enrich schema in his paper.[2] To Improve Reading Effects by Schema Theory published by Modern Foreign Language. Besides, there are a lot of paper about schema theory and reading comprehension, such as, Application of Schema Theory in ESL Reading Teaching by Zhu Xiangrong and Xiahui (2003:66), Journal of Shanghai College of Electricity &Machinery Technology, Schema Theory and Reading Teaching by Li Ke(1998: 19), Journal of Xinjiang Normal College and Cao Chunchun(2003:72), Journal of School of Tianjin Foreign Language University, etc.
The schema theory used to English reading comprehension has a long history at abroad. It is obvious that this theory can contribute to make the reading process fluently. Rumelhart, an American Artificial Intelligence expert, did a lot in construction and improvement of schema theory in the 1970s and the 1980s. He regards schemata as “the building blocks of cognition” (1980:40). Schema theory has been progressed to help explain how readers interact with the passage to reach comprehension.
Johnson (1982) compared ESL students’ recall on a reading passage on the topic of Halloween. Seventy-two ESL students at the university level joined in the experiment. All the participants know something about the custom. The passage not only contains the content which the subjects are familiar with but also includes the unfamiliar knowledge. Results of the experiment showed that prior cultural experience makes readers understand the familiar information about Halloween easily.
However, even if there are some unfamiliar words they can understand the reading passage.Wallance carried out an experimental research on the effects the subjects’ previous knowledge had on teaching to build new knowledge of reading comprehension while reading about a topic.[3] This research proved that teaching students a new topic could help them build schema.
Besides, Carrell (1984b) held an experiment to confirm whether teaching text constructure can facilitate reading comprehension. She showed the same texts to the subjects who were divided into two groups. She gave some instructions on the experimental group with skills to work on the text and the control group did not receive such strategies training. The experimental group had done better than the control group after the pre-test and post-test and they were also highly motivated and felt they had learned a useful strategy. This experiment showed that explicit teaching of the text structure indeed improves ESL students’ learning and reading comprehension.
Neil J. Anderson pointed out readers can employ some effective classroom activities to activate prior knowledge, such as semantic maps, pre-reading discussion, prediction, activation of text organization and so on.[4]
1.4.2 Previous researches on low-level English students
In China, there are also many definitions for low-level students such as less advanced learners, difficult students, poor learners, slow students, etc. The most obvious characteristic of the low-level students who are normal in physical growth is that their academic scores cant satisfy the standard requirement of the teaching syllabus. (Qian Zaisen,1994). In other words, the low-level students cant satisfy the requirement of teaching objective even they are normal intellectually. In conclusion, the former researches in china give some titles and definitions of the low-level students but the researches seem to lack evidences and proofs.
Samuel. A. Kirk who is an American educator put forward a brand new definition of low-level students. More and more researchers are interested in low-level students. Many researchers and educators make it and study it from all aspects like a prism since 1963. Low-level students are given various names such as slower learners, less-advanced students, the retarded, difficult students, poor students, and under-achievers, which were widely used before low-level students. Learning Disability Association of Canada, in 1981, defined learning disability in these ways: learning disability is a group of disorders which result in ineffective processing of information. The US Federal Governments laws and regulations give the definition of low-level students as follows: (1) Disorders are not included. (2) Generally speaking. The terminology refers to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes concerned with understanding or spoken or using language, written that may show itself in an imperfect ability to think, listen, speak, read, spell, and write. In a word, low-level students have difficulty in academic content or learning fundamental skills.
From the researches that are at home and abroad on low-level students, we come to know that many researches on English low-level students pay more attention to the cognitive aspect, but teaching mode is hardly focused on. The teaching mode is one of the most important parts of non-intelligence factors. And I also believe that the English low-level students in senior middle schools are much easier to be changed compared with college students as a result of their younger age and physiological reasons. So I want to concentrate on low- level English students in senior middle school, put forward countermeasures, and find out the effective way. Making English low-level students transform into all-round development students


[1] 张维友,图式知识与阅读理解[J].外语界,1995 (2):5-8
[2] 林挺,应用图式理论提高阅读教学[J].现代外语,1997 (4)
[3] Wallace, C. Reading [M]. Oxford University Press, 1992.
[4] Anderson, R.C. & Pearson, P.D. “A Schema Theoretic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension.”New York :Longman. 1984.
 
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