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摘       要
随着翻译实践与翻译理论的蓬勃发展翻译研究于近几十年也日益兴起。为了推动翻译研究的系统化发展,以及译学术语的标准化,翻译学词典应运而生,而且此类词典至今已有十几本。然而,作为关于一门新兴学科的词典难免会存在一些不尽如人意的地方。所以,翻译学词典研究,作为翻译学中的一支新秀,也逐渐发展起来,以解决现有译学词典中存在的问题。
现有译学词典的一个比较大的问题是词典种类匮乏,比如关于翻译人物的词典就很少。因而编纂翻译人物词典,推动翻译学研究健康发展成为一项重要任务。通过对翻译学以及译学词典的初步探索,本文对翻译人物词典的现状做了描写性和分析性的研究,指出了现有翻译人物词典的不足,并就此针对翻译人物词典的编研提出了一些建设性意见。  
随着越来越多的人投身于翻译实践以及翻译研究,他们在翻译领域以及社会上的重要性也逐渐被认可。本文中,翻译人物指的是那些为翻译发展做出过贡献的杰出的翻译家、翻译理论家以及不同翻译学派的代表人物等等。
由于以往编撰翻译人物词典的主要是翻译学领域的专家学者,而非词典编撰家,再加上一些其他主客观原因,错误和缺陷在所难免。从词典学角度来看,它们在词典综合结构、编排方式、检索途径、附录设置和装帧设计等方面都不同程度地存有漏洞。另外由于这类词典编纂刚刚起步,它们在收词释义的系统性、科学性等方面也有一些不尽如人意的地方。由于现有的翻译人物词典数量有限,以及人们尚未认识到这类词典的好处,有关翻译人物词典的理论研究也就相对较少。然而理论上来讲,翻译人物词典的作用很多,可以满足学者、老师、学生等不同人群的需要。
为了弥补翻译人物词典的缺陷,发扬它们的优点,更好地编撰深受大众欢迎的翻译人物词典,本文尝试性地探讨了翻译人物词典编纂应遵循的基本原则。
首先,文章从词典学的角度,对翻译人物词典的综合结构提出了一些意见,从而希望此类词典能更好地为研究者服务。文章参考了词典编纂家关于词典综合结构的言论以及翻译学者关于翻译学方面的建议,提出了几点适合翻译人物词典的建议。
    接下来,文章从宏观和微观的角度介绍了翻译人物词典的词条编纂,探讨收词、释义方面的主要注意事项,这一部分也是整篇论文的重点所在。
现今中国只有三本翻译人物方面的词典,而且每一本都不同程度的存在一些问题,这对于未来翻译人物词典的编研是很不利的。因而文章参考借鉴了一般人物词典和以往的翻译家词典,并灵活地运用到翻译人物词典中来,旨在建立一套科学系统的翻译人物词典编纂原则。文中收词原则归纳为规范性、时效性和综合性。而释义原则主要归纳为以下四点:义项单位的完整性、描写性、规范性和科学性。这些基本原则将会对未来翻译人物词典的编纂和研究有一定的参考价值。
论文结尾部分指出了本文的局限性和不足,并展望了翻译人物词典编研的未来。借此呼吁更多的人关注翻译人物词典以及译学词典的发展。
 
 
 
 
 
关键词:翻译人物;功能;总体结构;收词原则;释义原则


Introduction
0.1 The Object of the Thesis 
Translation, as a social activity, has a history of more than 5000 years in the world, and over 3000 years in China, starting from scratch to its popularity today. All the theories originated from practice. Later on, translation theory evolved from sporadic comments to detailed literatures, evaluating on the translation practice and theory. What’s more, since 1950s, linguistics and sociosemiotics have grown by leaps and bounds, and simultaneously, studies about post-colonist, deconstruction, as well as cultural comparison have been given further discussions. Under the influence of all these perspectives, further and more systematic explorations have been made on the study of translation. “Translation studies”, as a serious scientific branch, came into birth.
With the establishment and evolution of “translation studies”, a wealth of relevant terms and literature about translation and translation studies emerged. At that time, more systematic studies were in great demand and among them the dictionary of translation studies (DTS in short), an exotic flower, arrived just in time. As is said by Yang Zijian, “Professional terminology dictionary will emerge when a discipline has developed to a certain levelespecially in modern times”.
Currently, there are 13 DTSs in China, they are Dictionary of Chinese Translators (1988), Dictionary of Chinese Science Translators (1991), A Glossary of Translation Terms: Chinese-English, English-Chinese (1993), A Companion for Chinese Translators (1997) , An English-Chinese Translation Dictionary with Illustrative Examples (1999), Aspects of Translation (1999), Russian-Chinese Translation Dictionary (2000), Chinese-English Dictionary of Descriptions (2000), Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Practitioners (2001), A C-E E-C Verbal Forest of Translatology (2001) , An Encyclopedia of Translation: Chinese-EnglishEnglish-Chinese2nd edition, 2001), A Dictionary of Translation Studies (2004) and A Dictionary of Translation Technology (2004).(Zhao Wei, 2006) Simultaneously, two foreign DTSs were introduced, namely Dictionary of Translation Studies by Mark Shuttleworth & Moira Cowie in 1991, and Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies by Mona Baker in 1998. The burst of these dictionaries is like the “Enlightenment Movement” in the development of translation studies. They are landmarks, symbolizing the rapid development of translation studies and its independence.   
Accompanying the evolution of DTSs are many books and articles on the compilation of DTSs: articles about features and criterion of the existing DTSs, such as On the Descriptiveness of Dictionaries of Translatology(2002), and On the Principles of Compiling Dictionaries of Translation Studies(2002) ; critiques and suggestions on improving DTSs quality such as Gap between Usage and Compilation of Translatological Dictionaries(2002),and What is a Comprehensive Translatological Dictionary?(2004) ; principles of entry inclusion and entry definition such as Information Elements of Entries in Translatological Dictionaries(2004), and On the Compiling of Version Entries in Translatological Dictionaries(2002); viewpoints of certain part of DTSs, such as On Appendix of Comprehensive Dictionary of Translation Studies(2006), and A Proposal for Classified Arrangement of Translatology Dictionaries: A Cognitive Perspective(2004); etc. From this we can see that the study on compiling DTSs has embarked on a relatively systematic and comprehensive road.
   However, the study of DTSs should not be restrained to this, because the current DTSs are just the tip of the iceberg. Professor Sun Yingchun divided DTSs into comprehensive and single-subject dictionaries. The comprehensive DTSs could be further divided according to countries involved; while single-subject dictionary could be divided into four types, i.e. DTSs about theory, practice, language, and things. Therefore, the study of DTSs could be expanded accordingly, so as to establish more systematic and scientific study of DTSs. This paper tries to tackle a small part of this iceberg - the DTSs of things, and the thing discussed here is the dictionaries of translation figures (DTFs in short).
As a branch of the study of DTSs, the study of dictionaries of translation figures has not aroused appropriate attention yet, because there are few articles to discuss it in a detailed way till now. Usually, when asked about this term, people will feel perplexed and raise the following questions: who are “translation figures”? What are DTFs for? What’s the significance of compiling DTFs? How to compile it scientifically?
According to the Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, the word figure means a prominent personality. Considering the context and development of translation and translation studies, translation figures could be defined as outstanding people who have contributed to the development of translation, including translators, translation theorists, and representatives of different translation schools and so on.
Translators are not fresh to us today, for they and their work have always been playing an important role in the social, political, economic and cultural communication. “Lu Xun compared the translators as Prometheus. This metaphor has vividly states out the significance of translation and people engaged in this profession.”(Ye Junjian,preface of A Companion for Chinese Translators, 1997)
In the preface of Dictionary of Chinese Science Translatorsthe importance of translation figures is stressed time and again,
“Yan Fu, and other translators, like Liang Qichao, Xu Shou, and Hua Hengfang have contributed greatly in organizing translation activities, and disseminate science knowledge.
Translators, engaged in the scientific activities, have not only played an essential role in the evolvement of relevant courses, but also made positive contribution to scientific translation.”(Shanghai Journal of Translators for Science and Technology1991:v)
Ye Shuifu also speaks highly of translators in the preface of Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Translators
“Most of them are not leaders, let alone stars, singers, or other celebrities, but they have indeed exerted an irreplaceable role in the reform and opening-up, as well as the construction of the four-modernization. They are supposed to be widely accepted and respected by the society”.Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Translators2001preface
From these commentaries, it is easy to conclude that translators are indispensable in the course of history development, which could be well illustrated by Lin Shu. Lin Shu, a great Chinese translator, has worked together with others to translate a myriad of foreign literature into Chinese. As is estimated, he has translated 183 novels of Britain, America, and France, Russia, Japan, Spain, Belgian, Norwegian, Greece, and many other countries. Though he didn’t introduce the foreign literature as loyally as today’s translators do, he did make contributions to China’s literature development in a devoted way. A Ying (阿英) in his History of Late Qing Dynasty’s Novel stated that, “ (Lin Shu) takes China’s modern intellectual class closer to the foreign literature and many distinguished writers, and provides them with opportunities to learn from the foreign literature, and thus promote the development of our national literature.”(Sun Yingchun,1999: 546)
Quite importantly, it is necessary to point out that not only these translators are heroes, the translation theorists and other people who have close relation with translation cannot be neglected either. Let’s take Eugene A Nida as an example. Eugene A Nida is a great translation theorist with the most research achievements in translation in the west. He systematically illustrates translation process by means of modern linguistics which is also used to guide Bible translation. In addition, he proposes theories like “translation is science”, “dynamic equivalence” in more than 40 works and 250 articles. Since the 1980s his ideas have been extensively imported into China, and with the help of these imported theories, more and more translation styles come into birth, which have not only improved the translation level, but also greatly impacted China’s translation theory development from then on.
Although translation figures have stroked illuminating light in the course of the world’s development, attention to them has not yet been widely aroused. Just as Ye Junjian says in the preface of Dictionary of Chinese Translators, “Translation as a profession has gained more attention now; however, discussions of the nature of translation, and people involved in it are rare.”(Ye Junjian, 1988: preface of Dictionary of Chinese Translators)
Admittedly, there are some books and articles about translation figures, their status, their works, and their influence and so on, but that’s just instantaneous and sporadic ideas or thoughts. It is better if we can introduce them in a detailed and systematic way to those who want to learn about translation figures the people, their academic achievements or things like that, and one of the best ways is to compile dictionaries about them. Fortunately, there are three special dictionaries to introduce the distinguished translators; they are Dictionary of Chinese Translators (1988), Dictionary of Chinese Science Translators (1991), and Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Translators (2001). Apart from this, in A Companion for Chinese Translators (1997), Aspects of Translation (1999), A Dictionary of Translation Studies (2004) and some other dictionaries, some sections are also given to translation figures. These dictionaries are useful for us to have a grasp of translation figures, their bibliographic document, historical facts, etc.
The architect commissioned to design a building must know, first of all, to what uses the building will be put. In lexicography, too, each dictionary must have its own compiling purpose, making sure that the whole dictionary could give full scope to its roles. So are DTFs.
The purpose of Dictionary of Chinese Translators is to reflect the achievements of Chinese translators and their industrious work, to accumulate and collate materials in the translation field, so as to promote communication and develop translation course.
Dictionary of Chinese Science Translators holds such a purpose of carrying forward contributions of Chinese science translators, especially their achievements to China’s socialism construction, aiming to promote the communication between scientific translation and other fields; filling the gaps in the history of translation and publication, in order to provide an indispensable reference book for scientific development and translation study.
Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Translators says: in order to publicize the devotion spirit and brilliant contribution, summarize and promote the social and scientific fruits in our country, extend communication of scientific information, as well as offer information of qualified personnel, (we) compile this dictionary.
Zgusta proposes that, “The decision concerning the purpose or the combination of the purposes of a planned dictionary is one of the most important ones. A good part of both the scientific and the commercial success of the dictionaries will be the result of how reasonably this decision was made and how adroitly it was carried out.”(Cit: Bejoint: 109)
DTFs are different from other DTSs in that it is compiled to present a most thorough picture of translation by introducing translation figures instead of normal translation terms, in which not only translators, but also translation theorists, and representatives of different translation schools and so on are included. Therefore, its purpose is first to note down the achievements of translators, in the hope of informing people of their translating approach, style and contributions to the development of translation and the society; second to record translation theorists’ thoughts on translation, which could be used to guide translation practice, and be preserved as precious culture heritage, so as to promote the academic study; third to introduce those non-translators as well as non-translation theorists, who have facilitated translation cause in various ways.
As more attention is to be given to translation figures, the compilation of DTFS can provide the public with more opportunities to know the translation figures. Besides, users of DTFS could benefit enormously from it: translators could improve their translating skills through learning the skills put forward by others; researchers on translation studies could get inspiration from the translation figures and their achievements; furthermore, it can serve as a teaching tool for foreign language teachers, etc.
In addition, to compile new DTFs can make up the shortcomings of existing DTFs. As is noticed, the existing DTFs are not so ideal. For one aspect, the quantity of DTFs is too small, and the contents of these dictionaries are limited. For another aspect, quality of DTF is not satisfactory. Thus more comprehensive and complete DTFs need to be compiled. Wang Kefei says that entries about Chinese translators of the existing DTFs need supplementation, while entry about foreign translators should start from scratch. (Cit: Sun Yingchun, 2004:17)
Based on the above reasons, we can get that to compile DTFS is relatively important and questions about how to compile DTFs should be put on the agenda.
As stated, there is no systematical principles about compiling DTFs, study on it, should on one hand, be based on the existing DTFs; on the other hand, could lean on the compiling principles about translation figures in DTSs and general people dictionary.
 
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